Recurrent Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks are very useful tools that are able to learn and recognize objects on images, or learn the style of Van Gogh and paint new pictures in his style. 
In recurrent neural networks. The “Recurrent” nature can be explained as following, With an artificial neural network, we usually have a one-to-one relation between the input and the output. This means for one image input, we get classification output, whether the image depicts a cat or a dog. With recurrent neural networks, we can have a one-to-many relation between the input and the output. The input would still be an image, but the output would not be a word, but a sequence of words, a sentence that describes what we see in the image. For a many-to-one relation, a good example is sentiment analysis.

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This means that a sequence of inputs, for instance, a sentence is classified as either negative or positive. This is very useful for processing product reviews, where we’d like to know whether the user liked or hated the product without reading whole paragraphs. And finally, recurrent neural networks can also deal with many-to-many relations by translating an input sequence into an output sequence.
Examples of this can be machine translations that take an input sentence and translate to an output sentence in a different language. For another example of a many to many relations, let’s see what the algorithm learned after reading Tolstoy’s War and Peace novel by asking it to write in that style. It should be noted that generating a new novel happens letter by letter, so the algorithm is not allowed to memorize words.
Let’s take a look at the results at different stages of the training process. The initial results are, well, gibberish. But the algorithm seems to recognize immediately, that words are basically a big bunch of letters that are separated by spaces. If we wait a bit more, we see that it starts to get a very basic understanding of structures – for instance, a quotation mark that you have opened must be closed, and a sentence can be closed by a period, and it is followed by an uppercase letter. Later, it starts to learn shorter and more common words, such as fall, that, the, for, me. If we wait for longer, we see that it already gets a grasp of longer words and smaller parts of sentences actually start to make sense. Here is a piece of Shakespeare that was written by the algorithm after reading all of his works. 

You see names that make sense, and you really shave to check the text thoroughly to conclude that it’s indeed not the real deal. It can also try to write math papers. I had to look for quite a bit until I realized that something is fishy here. It is not unreasonable to think that it can very easily deceive a non-expert reader.

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Can you believe this? This is insanity. It is also capable of learning the source code of the Linux operating system and generate new code that also looks quite sensible. 
So, recurrent neural networks are really amazing tools that open up completely new horizons for solving problems where either the inputs or the outputs are not one thing, but a sequence of things. 

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